Cryptosporidiosis in reptiles

Cryptosporidiosis has been reported in various reptile species. This disease appears to be common in wild and captive populations of reptiles, and transmission occurs via the faecal-oral route. Infected reptiles may not show symptoms, but they are sporadic shedders of oocysts (eggs). Clinical signs of Crypto infection include regurgitation and weight loss followed by abnormal enlargement of the gastric mucosal layer.

Diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis can be challenging. One method of diagnosis is the identification of oocysts in a fecal sample by acid-fast staining. A negative acid-fast stain only indicates that the reptile was not molting at the time of sampling and does not mean that the animal is Crypto-free. Standard practice is to test three times before an animal is assumed to be disease free. Endoscopy, including gastric lavage and biopsy, can also be used to identify this disease.

The most common species of cryptosporidiosis found in reptiles are C. serpentis, C. muris and C. parvum. It is assumed that the C. parvum (mouse-based) occysts found were likely from rodents ingested by the reptiles, rather than from actual Crypto infection. This possibility of C. parvum infection by reptiles can only be fully ruled out by further careful biological and genetic studies.

In March 1999, the Saint Louis Zoo initiated a diagnosis-euthanasia program following the identification of chronic Cryptosporidium in snakes at their facility. In order to monitor the effectiveness of the control measures, samples were periodically taken from the snakes over a period of one year. Immediately after the initiation of the control measure, 5 of 10 and 8 of 17 snake samples tested positive for Crypto in May and June 1999, respectively. Subsequently, only 1 of 45 snake samples taken at five different time periods tested positive for cryptosporidiosis.

There are currently no effective control strategies against Cryptosporidium in reptiles. In one small study, it was shown that snakes with clinical and subclinical Cryptosporidium can be effectively treated (not cured) with hyperimmune bovine colostrum raised against C. parvum. Strict hygiene and quarantine of infected and exposed animals are mandatory to control cryptosporidiosis, however most choose to euthanize infected animals. The best way to prevent the spread of Crypto is to euthanize infected reptiles.

Crypto oocysts are neutralized only by exposure to moist heat between 113°F and 140°F for 5 to 9 minutes and disinfection with ammonia (5%) or formal saline (10%) for 18 hours. Ineffective disinfectants included idophores (1%-4%), cresylic acid (2.5% and 5%), sodium hypochlorite (3%), benzalkonium chloride (5% and 10%), and sodium hydroxide (0.02 m ). Everything that could potentially be in contact with the infected reptile should be thoroughly cleaned with an ammonia solution and left to dry for at least 3 days.

Best Cryptocurrencies of 2018: What Are the Best Bitcoin Alternatives?

Important: This position should not be considered investment advice. The author focuses on the best coins in terms of actual usage and adoption, not from a financial or investment perspective.
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In 2017, crypto markets set a new standard for easy profits. Almost every piece or chip has made incredible returns. “A rising tide floats all boats,” as they say, and the end of 2017 was a deluge. The increase in prices has created a positive feedback cycle, which attracts more and more capital to Crypto. Unfortunately, but inevitably, this galloping market leads to huge investments. Money has been thrown indiscriminately into all sorts of dubious projects, many of which will not bear fruit.
In the current bearish environment, hype and greed have been replaced by critical judgment and prudence. Especially for those who have lost money, marketing promises, endless shillings and charismatic oratories are no longer enough. Well, the fundamental reasons to buy or hold coins are once again Paramount.
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Basic factors in cryptocurrency valuation-

There are some factors that tend to overcome hype and prices, at least in the long run:

The adoption angle

Although the technology of cryptocurrency or ICO business plan may seem surprising without users, they are just dead projects. It is often forgotten that widespread acceptance is an essential characteristic of money. In fact, it is estimated that over 90% of Bitcoin’s value is a function of the number of users.
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While acceptance of fiat is mandated by the state, acceptance of cryptography is purely voluntary. Many factors play a role in the decision to accept a coin, but perhaps the most important factor is the likelihood that others will accept the coin.
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Decentralization is necessary for the I push model of real cryptocurrency. Without decentralization, we’re a little closer to a Ponzi scheme than a true cryptocurrency. Trust in individuals or institutions is a problem – cryptocurrency tries to solve.
If dismantling a coin or a central controller can change the transaction record, it calls into question its basic security. The same goes for parts with untested code that haven’t been thoroughly tested in years. The more you can count on the code to work as described, regardless of human influence, the more secure the coin is.
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Valid coins strive to improve their technology, but not at the expense of security. True technological progress is rare because it requires a lot of expertise – but also wisdom. While there are always fresh ideas that can be screwed up, if it leads to vulnerabilities or critics of the coin’s original purpose, it misses the point.
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Innovation can be a difficult factor to assess, especially for non-technical users. However, if a currency is stagnating or not receiving updates that address important issues, it can be a sign that developers are low on ideas or motivation.
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The economic incentives inherent in currency are easier for the average person to understand. If a coin had a large pre-mine or an ICO (initial offering) team had a significant share of tokens, then it is quite obvious that the main motivation is profit. By buying what the team has to offer, you play your game and enrich it. Be sure to provide tangible and reliable value in return.
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5 Cryptocurrencies to Buy in 2018

There has never been a better time to reassess and rebalance your crypto portfolio. Based on their solid fundamentals, here are five pieces that I think are worth holding or perhaps buying at their current depressed prices (which, just be warned, could go lower).
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#1. Bitcoin (because of its decentralization)

Number one belongs to Bitcoin (BTC), which remains the market leader in all categories. Bitcoin has the highest price, the widest assumption, the most security (due to the phenomenal energy consumption of Bitcoin mining), the most famous brand identity (forks have struggled to match), and the most development Active and rational. It is also the only piece to date that is represented on traditional markets in the form of Bitcoin futures on the US CME and CBOE.
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Bitcoin remains the main engine; The performance of all other parts is highly correlated with the performance of Bitcoin. My personal expectation is that the gap between Bitcoin and most if not all other parts will widen.
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Bitcoin has several promising innovations in the pipeline that will soon be installed as additional layers or soft forks. Examples are the Flash system (LN), tree, Schnorr signatures, Mimblewimbleund many more.
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In particular, we plan to open up a new range of applications for Bitcoin, as it enables large-scale, micro-transactions and instant and secure payouts. LN is becoming more stable as users test their various capabilities with real Bitcoin. As it becomes easier to use, it can be assumed that it benefits greatly from the adoption of Bitcoin.
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#2. Litecoin (because of its persistence)

Litecoin (LTC) is a clone of Bitcoin with a different hash algorithm. Although Litecoin no longer has Bitcoin’s anonymity technology, incredible reports have shown that Litecoin’s dark market adoption is now second only to Bitcoin. Although the currency I have is much more suited to the role of acquiring illegal goods and services, perhaps this is a result of Litecoin’s longevity: it was launched in late 2011.
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Another factor in Litecoin’s favor is that it integrates Bitcoin SegWit technology, which means that Litecoin is LN ready. Litecoin can benefit from the exchange of atomic chains. In other words, secure peer-to-peer currency trading without the involvement of third parties (ie exchanges). Because Litecoin keeps its code largely in sync with Bitcoin, it is well positioned to benefit from Bitcoin’s technical advances.

#3. Ethereum (because of smart contracts)

Ethereum (ETH) is currently experiencing some major problems. First of all, governments crack down on ICOs, and rightly so: many turn out to be either fake or bankrupt. Since most icos are launched on the Ethereum network as an ERC token 20, the ICO mania has brought a lot of value to Ethereum in recent years. If proper rules are put in place to protect investors, scams in Ethereum projects can claim some legitimacy as a crowdfunding platform.
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Another major problem facing Ethereum is the delayed transition to a new hybrid system of work and battery detection. Ethereum GPU mining is currently profitable, but Bitmain just announced an Ethereum ASIC minor, which will likely have an impact on GPU miners’ bottom lines. It remains to be seen whether this will change the POWs and how successful this change will be.

If Ethereum can survive these two main problems – regulation and mining – it will show great resilience. Otherwise, there are several competing currencies that follow its shadows, such as Ethereum Classic (etc), Cardano (ADA), and EOS.

#4. Monero (because of its anonymity)

Although its adoption in the dark markets is not all that might have been expected, I (XMR) remains the privacy of the prime minister. Its reputation and market capitalization are still above those of its rivals – and for good reason.

Monero’s code requires less trust than Zcash’s “loyal” key ceremony, and it had an honest start, unlike Dash. That Monero recently changed its Pow to defeat the development of a small ASIC for its algorithm confirms the commitment of the decentralization part of mining. The significant drop in hash rate is due to the new version, which is constantly being reported against ASICs. This could also be an opportunity for GPUs and even smaller processors to come to me. The new version of Monero, 0.12, also includes other improvements that show that Monero continues to grow along sensitive lines.

#5. iPRONTO (decentralized incubation platform)

iPRONTO is an incubation platform Ethereum chain dedicated to investors who are looking for a safe and reliable platform to invest in new ideas and future innovators who can present their ideas and get opinions from users, experts in the field about the practice and implementation of derived ideas.

Innovators’ ideas are supported because the NES in Smart Contract format will be signed between the expert platform and the customer if the client’s business idea is sent to the Commission for examination and registration on the platform. The idea will not be released to all users on the chain’s public platform, but only to selected members of the target community who are willing to sign a Smart Contract to maintain the confidentiality of the idea.

The basics of cryptocurrency and how it works

In the times we live in, technology has made incredible advances compared to any time in the past. This evolution has redefined human life in almost every aspect. In fact, this evolution is an ongoing process and hence human life on earth is improving day by day. One of the latest inclusions in this aspect are cryptocurrencies.

Cryptocurrency is nothing but a digital currency, which is designed to impose security and anonymity in online monetary transactions. It uses cryptographic encryption to both generate currency and verify transactions. New coins are created through a process called mining, while transactions are recorded in a public ledger, called the Transaction Block Chain.

Little backtrack

The evolution of cryptocurrency is mainly attributed to the virtual world of the web and involves the procedure of transforming readable information into code, which is almost indecipherable. This makes it easier to track purchases and transfers involving currency. Cryptography, since its introduction in World War II to secure communication, has evolved into this digital age, merging with mathematical theories and computer science. Therefore, it is now used to secure not only communication and information, but also the transfer of money over the virtual web.

How to use cryptocurrency

It is very easy for common people to use this digital currency. Just follow the steps below:

  • You need a digital wallet (obviously, to store currency)
  • Use the wallet to create unique public addresses (this allows you to receive currency)
  • Use public addresses to transfer funds to or from your wallet

Wallets for cryptocurrencies

A cryptocurrency wallet is nothing more than a software program, which can store both private and public keys. In addition, it can communicate with different blockchains, so users can send and receive digital currency and track their balance.

The way digital wallets work

Unlike conventional wallets that we carry in our pockets, digital wallets do not store money. In fact, the blockchain concept is so cleverly mixed with cryptocurrencies that currencies are never stored in a specific location. Nor do they exist anywhere in cash or physical form. Only records of your transactions and nothing else are stored in the blockchain.

A real life example

Suppose a friend sends you some digital currency, say in the form of bitcoins. What this friend does is transfer ownership of the coins to your wallet address. Now, when you want to use that money, you unlock the fund.

To unlock the pool, you need to match the private key in your wallet with the public address that the coins are assigned to. Only when these private and public addresses match will your account be credited and your wallet balance will increase. At the same time, the digital currency sender’s balance will decrease. In digital currency transactions, the actual exchange of physical coins never takes place in any case.

Understanding Cryptocurrency Address

By nature, it is a public address with a unique string of characters. This allows the user or owner of a digital wallet to receive cryptocurrency from others. Each public address that is generated has a corresponding private address. This automatic match proves or establishes ownership of a public address. As a more practical analogy, you can consider a public cryptocurrency address as your email address to which others can send email. Emails are the currency people send you.

Understanding the latest version of technology, in the form of cryptocurrency, is not difficult. It takes some research and time on the internet to get the basics straight.

How does cryptocurrency gain value?

Cryptocurrencies are the latest ‘big thing’ in the digital world and are now recognized as part of the monetary system. In fact, enthusiasts have labeled it a ‘money revolution’.

To put it plainly, cryptocurrencies are decentralized digital assets that can be exchanged between users without the need for a central authority, most of which are created by special computing techniques called “mining”.

The acceptance of currencies, such as the US dollar, the British pound and the euro, as legal tender is because they are issued by a central bank; digital currencies, however, such as cryptocurrencies, do not depend on public trust and confidence in the issuer. As such, several factors determine its value.

Factors that determine the value of cryptocurrencies

Principles of free market economy (mainly supply and demand)

Supply and demand are the main determinants of the value of anything of value, including cryptocurrencies. This is because if more people are willing to buy a cryptocurrency and others are willing to sell, the price of that particular cryptocurrency will rise, and vice versa.

Mass Adoption

Mass adoption of any cryptocurrency can send the price skyrocketing for a month. This is because the supply of many cryptocurrencies is limited to a certain limit and, according to economic principles, an increase in demand without a corresponding increase in supply will lead to an increase in the price of that particular commodity.

More cryptocurrencies have invested more resources to ensure their mass adoption, and some have focused on the applicability of their cryptocurrency to pressing life problems as well as crucial everyday cases, with the intention of making them indispensable in everyday life.

Fiat Inflation

If a fiat currency, such as the USD or GBP, becomes inflated, its price rises and its purchasing power falls. This will then cause cryptocurrencies (let’s use Bitcoin as an example) to increase against that fiat. The result is that with each bitcoin you will be able to acquire more of that fiat. In fact, this situation was one of the main reasons for the increase in the price of Bitcoin.

Scams and history of cyber attacks

Scams and hacks are also key factors affecting the value of cryptocurrencies, as they are known to cause wild swings in valuations. In some cases, the team supporting the cryptocurrency can be scammers; they will pump up the price of the cryptocurrency to attract unsuspecting individuals, and once their hard-earned money is invested, the scammers short the price, who then disappear without a trace.

Therefore, it is imperative that you watch out for cryptocurrency scams before investing your money.

Some other factors to consider that affect the value of cryptocurrencies include:

  • How cryptocurrency is stored, as well as its utility, security, ease of acquisition, and cross-border acceptability

  • The strength of the community supporting the cryptocurrency (this includes funding, innovation and loyalty of its members)

  • Low risks associated with cryptocurrency according to investors and users

  • The feeling of news

  • Cryptocurrency market liquidity and volatility

  • Country regulations (this includes banning cryptocurrency and ICOs in China and accepting it as legal tender in Japan)

6 Advantages of investing in cryptocurrencies

The birth of bitcoin in 2009 opened the door to the possibility of investing in an entirely new type of asset class – cryptocurrency. It entered space very early.

Intrigued by the huge potential of this young but promising asset, they bought cryptocurrencies at cheap prices. Accordingly, in 2017 they became millionaires/billionaires. Even those who did not invest much made a decent profit.

Three years later, cryptocurrencies still remain profitable, and the market is here to stay. You may already be an investor/trader or you may be thinking of trying your luck. In either case, it makes sense to know the benefits of investing in cryptocurrencies.

Cryptocurrency has a bright future

According to a report called Imagine 2030, published by Deutsche Bank, credit and debit cards will become obsolete. Smartphones and other electronic devices will replace them.

Cryptocurrencies will no longer be seen as outcasts, but as an alternative to existing monetary systems. Their advantages, such as security, speed, minimal transaction fees, ease of storage and relevance in the digital era, will be recognised.

Concrete regulatory guidelines would popularize cryptocurrencies and encourage their adoption. The report predicts that there will be 200 million cryptocurrency wallet users by 2030, and nearly 350 million by 2035.

An opportunity to be part of a growing community

WazirX’s #IndiaWantsCrypto the campaign recently completed 600 days. It has become a huge movement supporting the adoption of cryptocurrencies and blockchain in India.

Also, the recent Supreme Court judgment overturning the RBI’s ban on crypto banking from 2018 has instilled a new surge of confidence among Indian investors in bitcoin and cryptocurrencies.

The 2020 Edelman Trust Barometer report also points to the growing faith people have in cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology. According to the findings, 73% of Indians trust cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology. 60% say the impact of cryptocurrency/blockchain will be positive.

By being a cryptocurrency investor, you become part of a thriving and rapidly growing community.

Increased profit potential

Diversification is an essential rule for investments. Especially in these times when most assets have suffered heavy losses due to the economic difficulties caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.

While investing in bitcoin has returned 26% year-to-date, gold has returned 16%. Many other cryptocurrencies have registered triple-digit ROIs. The stock market as we all know has had a bad performance. Crude oil prices fell below 0 in April.

Including bitcoin or any other cryptocurrency in your portfolio would protect the value of your fund in such uncertain global market situations. This fact was impressed by billionaire macro hedge fund manager Paul Tudor Jones when he announced plans to invest in Bitcoin a month ago.

Cryptocurrency markets are on 24X7X365

Unlike normal markets, cryptocurrency markets work 24 hours a day, every day of the year without getting tired. This is because digital currency systems are essentially designed using pieces of software code that are protected by cryptography.

The operational plan does not involve human intervention. So you are free to trade cryptocurrencies or invest in digital assets whenever you want. That’s a huge benefit! Cryptocurrency markets are very efficient in this way.

For example, Bitcoin has successfully processed transactions with 99.98% uptime since its inception in 2009.


No paperwork or formality required

You can invest in bitcoin or any other cryptocurrency anywhere and anytime without any unnecessary conditions.

Unlike conventional investment options, where an absurdly large amount of documentation is required to prove yourself as an ‘accredited investor’, crypto-investing is free for all. In fact, this was the goal behind the creation of cryptocurrencies. Democratization of finance/money.

To buy any cryptocurrency at WazirX, you need to open an account for which you just need to provide some basic information including bank account details. Once they’re confirmed, within a few hours, you’re good to go.

Sole investment ownership

When you buy bitcoin or any other cryptocurrency, you become the sole owner of that particular digital asset. The transaction takes place in an equal arrangement.

Unlike bonds, mutual funds, stockbrokers, no third party ‘manages your investment’ for you. You decide to buy and sell, whenever you want.

User autonomy is the biggest advantage of the cryptocurrency system that provides incredible opportunities to invest and build a corpus on your base capital ‘independently’.

These were some of the benefits of investing in cryptocurrencies. We hope you find them useful and compelling enough to start your crypto investment journey.

Things that look positive for cryptocurrencies

Although there have been market corrections in the cryptocurrency market in 2018, everyone agrees that the best is yet to come. There has been a lot of activity in the market that has changed the course for the better. With proper analysis and the right dose of optimism, anyone invested in the crypto market can make millions from it. The cryptocurrency market is here to stay for the long term. Here in this article, we give you five positive factors that can drive further innovation and market value of cryptocurrencies.

1. Innovation in scaling

Bitcoin is the first cryptocurrency on the market. It has the maximum number of users and the highest value. It dominates the entire value chain in the cryptocurrency system. However, it is not without problems. Its main bottleneck is that it can only process six to seven transactions per second. By comparison, the average credit card transaction is several thousand per second. Obviously, there is room for improvement in scaling transactions. With the help of peer to peer transaction networks on top of blockchain technology, it is possible to increase the volume of transactions per second.

2. Legitimate ICO

While there are stable value cryptocoins on the market, newer coins are being created that are designed to serve a specific purpose. Coins like IOTA are meant to help the Internet of Things market exchange power currencies. Some coins address the issue of cybersecurity by providing encrypted digital vaults to store money.

New ICOs come with innovative solutions that disrupt the existing market and bring new value in transactions. They are also gaining authority in the market with their easy-to-use exchanges and reliable backend operations. They are innovating both on the technology side regarding the use of specialized hardware for mining and on the financial market side giving more freedom and options to investors in the exchange.

3. Clarity of regulation

In the current scenario, most governments are studying the impact of cryptocurrencies on society and how its benefits can be realized for the community as a whole. We can expect that there will be reasonable conclusions according to the results of the study.

Several governments are already going the route of legalizing and regulating the crypto market like any other market. This will prevent uninformed retail investors from losing money and protect them from harm. 2018 is expected to see the emergence of appropriate regulations that promote the growth of cryptocurrencies. This will potentially pave the way for widespread adoption in the future

4. Increasing application

There is huge enthusiasm for the application of blockchain technology in almost every industry. Some startups are coming up with innovative solutions like digital wallets, cryptocurrency debit cards, etc. This will increase the number of merchants willing to transact in cryptocurrencies which in turn increases the number of users.

The reputation of crypto assets as a transaction medium will be strengthened as more and more people trust this system. Although some startups may not survive, they will contribute positively to the overall health of the market by creating competition and innovation.

5. Investments of financial institutions

Many international banks are following the cryptocurrency scene. This can lead to the entry of institutional investors into the market. The influx of significant institutional investment will fuel the next phase of crypto market growth. He got busy with many banks and financial institutions.

As the surprises and bottlenecks around cryptocurrencies diminish, traditional investors will become more accepting. This will bring a lot of dynamism and liquidity which is necessary for all growing financial markets. Cryptocurrency will become the de facto currency for transactions worldwide.